Η Αρχαία Κύζικος

Η Κύζικος ήταν αρχαία μικρασιατική πόλη στη Μικρά Φρυγία (Μυσία), κοντά στην Προποντίδα. Ήταν αποικία των Μιλήσιων.

Ιδρυτής της θεωρείται ο ήρωας Κύζικος, που βοήθησε στην επιτυχία της Αργοναυτικής Εκστρατείας.

Η πόλη είχε αναδειχτεί μία από τις σπουδαιότερες ελληνικές πόλεις της Μικράς Ασίας, ξακουστή για την αλιεία και τους στατήρες της από ήλεκτρο, που χρησιμοποιήθηκαν πολύ μέχρι και την εποχή του Μεγάλου Αλεξάνδρου (κυζικηνοί στατήρες). Οι επιγραφές, οι περιγραφές και όλα τα ερείπια εμφανίζουν την Κύζικο ως εξαιρετικά αναπτυγμένη πόλη, πλούσια και σπουδαίο εμπορικό κέντρο. Έξω από τις ακτές της ο Αλκιβιάδης καταναυμάχησε τους Λακεδαιμόνιους το 410 π.Χ. Την εποχή της ρωμαϊκής κυριαρχίας ήταν σχεδόν ελεύθερη και στη βυζαντινή περίοδο εξακολούθησε να ακμάζει.

Ο μεγάλος σεισμός του 1063 κατέστρεψε ολοσχερώς και οριστικά την πόλη της Κυζίκου. Οι κάτοικοι βρήκαν καταφύγιο σε άλλες πόλεις της χερσονήσου και η έδρα της Μητρόπολης μεταφέρθηκε από τότε στην Αρτάκη.

Δοκιμαστικό κείμενο 1

The site amid the marshes of Balkiz Serai is known as Bal-Kiz and entirely uninhabited, though under cultivation. The principal extant ruins are the walls, dating from the fourth century, which are traceable for nearly their whole extent, and the substructures of the temple of Hadrian, the ruins of a Roman aqueduct and a theatre.

The picturesque amphitheatre, intersected by a stream, built in the third century B.C., was one of the largest in the world; its diameter was nearly 500 feet (150 m). Of this magnificent building, sometimes ranked among the seven wonders of the ancient world, thirty-one immense columns still stood erect in 1444. These have since been carried away piecemeal for building purposes.

Colossal foundations of a temple dedicated to the Emperor Hadrian are still visible: the columns were 21.35 metres high (about 70 feet), while the highest known elsewhere, those at Baalbek in Syria are only 19.35 metres (about 63 feet).

The monuments of Cyzicus were used by the Byzantine emperor Justinian as a quarry for the building of his Saint Sophia cathedral, and were still exploited by the Ottomans.

Δοκιμαστικό κείμενο 2

The site amid the marshes of Balkiz Serai is known as Bal-Kiz and entirely uninhabited, though under cultivation. The principal extant ruins are the walls, dating from the fourth century, which are traceable for nearly their whole extent, and the substructures of the temple of Hadrian, the ruins of a Roman aqueduct and a theatre.

The picturesque amphitheatre, intersected by a stream, built in the third century B.C., was one of the largest in the world; its diameter was nearly 500 feet (150 m). Of this magnificent building, sometimes ranked among the seven wonders of the ancient world, thirty-one immense columns still stood erect in 1444. These have since been carried away piecemeal for building purposes.

Colossal foundations of a temple dedicated to the Emperor Hadrian are still visible: the columns were 21.35 metres high (about 70 feet), while the highest known elsewhere, those at Baalbek in Syria are only 19.35 metres (about 63 feet).

The monuments of Cyzicus were used by the Byzantine emperor Justinian as a quarry for the building of his Saint Sophia cathedral, and were still exploited by the Ottomans.

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